Hunting in England: features of hunting with British terriers
Hunting in Britain was a class occupation, strictly regulated by the property status of citizens. Violation of the rules severely punished. Large noble game was the prerogative of the royal blood persons, large landlords, aristocrats. Only kings and the highest English court aristocracy could hunt deer. With flocks of hounds on roe deer, fallow deer and fox in England, the nobility hunted. The lot of tenants, farmers, commoners was getting small game, including from holes. Terriers in such a hunt were indispensable.
In 1686, Bloum described fox hunting with terriers: “A terrier is a small dog intended for hunting foxes and badgers. Its task is to submit and mark the beast. This means that the dog must drive the prey to a dead end hole – the fox holes have many dead ends – and keep it there until the animals are excavated from above. The dog should bark at the beast in one place, and its voice indicates where the fox is. Most hunters use a bow (pair) of terriers so that a fresh dog can be started and the first one withdrawn. ” (See Fox Hunting with Dachshund.)
Initially, hunting with terriers in England wore utilitarian functions – the destruction of harmful animals that caused significant damage to crops and household. These pests in those days were dry English disaster. Poisons and traps began to be applied much later. The only “tool” for the destruction of predators and rodents was a terrier. Different types of terriers evolved depending on the animals with which they were supposed to finish off, from the complex of work performed and the conditions of the terrain.
Wide-chested, strong silichams, bred in Wales, powerful powerful glen-ofimaaly were unsurpassed badgers. Slender, light, high-legged Manchesters and bedlingtons, carrying in their veins the blood of a small greyhound – vipeta. Gained fame unsurpassed rat catchers and hunters wild rabbits. The small, squat terriers of Scotland worked in the most difficult conditions of rocky holes, and the terriers of Ireland served as almost universal hunting dogs, working in burrows, in the field and in the will, guarding cattle and master’s houses. That is why they are larger than the rest of the British Isle terriers.
Work predominantly on foxes formed a narrow front and slight growth for the Fox Terriers, with a square format. The appearance of the boarders also formed a hunt: long enough legs for the dog to accompany the rider, thick, loose skin, giving the dog a maneuver in the narrow holes of the holes when the terrier can move within its skin, and a chest volume that simultaneously gives space to the heart and light and easy to wrap itself around the withers with fingers of the average size of the male palm. But no matter what the appearance of the terriers were, they all worked on any object of hunting, defined for them by humans.
Appearance of terriers in the understanding of modern breeds took place during the second half of the XIX – XX centuries. During the same period, the current breed names were established. But the old terriers, more primitive and rude, with their local names, regularly performed the necessary work, not ennobled by the fruits of civilization. The features of their exterior were laid initially, since a person selected only dogs suitable for use in a given area for breeding. All terriers had powerful jaws, large, not in height, teeth and lightning reaction.
The improvement of hunting weapons, ways of hunting, and most importantly, changes in the socio-economic life of England, led to the reorientation of the economic function of part of the terriers to the sporting and hunting. They start to hunt for the beast, not only worrying about the safety of poultry houses and young cattle, but for the sake of a sports trophy, for the sake of interesting pastime and entertainment. Noir hunt do not disdain the aristocrats. Its distribution in England apparently dates from the 15th to the 16th centuries, and sport hunting is carried out mainly on foxes.
In 1576 Georg Turberville drew the reader’s attention to practical circumstances. Translated from Old English, it looks like this: “A lord or gentleman who wants to have fun with burrowing horses should have half a dozen things with him to lay on the ground listening to the work of a terrier, some use an inflatable pillow for this and well fortified on all four sides. From one corner the pillow has a tube through which it is filled with air. When the pillow is well inflated, the tube is blocked, the pillow is placed on the ground and placed on it. But this pastime has a number of negative sides. And if a lord or gentleman pays little attention to the fact that the earth is cold and damp, then he risks getting a chronic disease. ”