Celebes Island, or Sulawesi, where this species of woodcock lives, is also included in the Malay Archipelago in Indonesia. The area of the island is about 170 thousand square meters. km The island is similar in natural conditions to other islands of the Malay Archipelago, but it is here that the Celebes Woodcock lives, which differs markedly from the Indonesian one. So. this species is larger not only its neighbor – the Indonesian woodcock, but also the northern one.Its beak is longer and thicker at the base. In plumage of a back black color which alternates with dark-rusty spots prevails; starting from the shoulder blades, gray-olive stripes appear at the sides. The belly plumage is the color of cinnamon, without transverse stripes. Beak and paws are gray-blue.
Like the Indonesian woodcock, this species is sedentary. He also prefers mountain rainforests in the north and in the center of the island, where he keeps at altitudes from 1700 to 2300 meters above sea level. The Celebes Woodcock, as well as the Indonesian, has several subspecies, differing from each other in minor external signs, for example, with a shorter beak.
The Celebesque Woodcock is even more rare than its neighbor in the islands of the archipelago.
In Indonesia, in the eastern part of the Malay Archipelago, the Maluku Islands are located with a total area of about 84,000 square meters. km The largest of the islands are Halmahera, Seram, Buru. This archipelago, consisting of mountainous islands with heights up to 3000 meters, sheltered the most mysterious woodcock.
The Moluccan woodcock is close in size to the northern woodcock, but the length of its beak, as described, reaches 100 mm. The plumage is dominated by black colors on the back and wings, which are dotted with broad red spots; the abdomen is light yellow. The sides are yellow with black stripes.
The biology of this woodcock is less studied. Virtually nothing is known about his behavior, nor about the features of his reproduction. This species is considered endangered and is listed on the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
This view is a quarter smaller than the northern woodcock. Its beak is about 60 mm, paws shorter; the eyes, as in the northern relative, are high, the wings are short and rounded. In the spinal plumage, black and brown color with two gray longitudinal stripes prevails. The belly plumage is cinnamon-colored and has no transverse stripes. In contrast to the northern woodcock, the sex of which is almost impossible to determine in life, the male of a small American woodcock can be distinguished from a female.
Thus, females have a greater weight (210 grams on average) as compared with males (165 grams), and female primary feathers are wider in females than males.
The American woodcock, like the north, is a migratory species. Its main breeding area is located in the south-east of Canada and the United States of America; in Canada, it passes through New Scotland to Ontario, Quebec; also nests in the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In the United States, it breeds in the northeastern part of the country, from New England to Minnesota. In the central-eastern United States, woodcock and nest, and winters. The main wintering areas are Oklahoma, Missouri south, Tennessee, Virginia and some other southern states, including Florida. Part of the wintering takes place in the northern states of Mexico, mainly on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The American woodcock has never been celebrated in Eurasia.
The female chooses a place for nesting near the glade or forest edges, building a nest near the trunks of small trees or shrubs. The nest, as in the northern woodcock, is a small depression in the soil with a very modest presence of leaves or dry blades of grass. The laying consists of four eggs. Young chicks leave the nest as soon as they dry out. The female leads the chicks to places full of food, and brings up a brood alone.
Places of laying and rearing of chicks are noticeably different from each other. In the first case, this is a place with good protective properties, namely with thick and relatively tall grass, without a well-developed shrub layer, with dry soil. To raise chicks, the female takes the brood to wet places where earthworms abound and the bushes create good protection and shelter from enemies. Nestlings grow very quickly and, already from the age of fifteen days, are able to fly for short distances. At thirty days they reach the size of an adult bird and at the age of five to eight weeks become completely independent.
With the onset of snow melt, a small American woodcock leaves the wintering and goes to nesting sites. The flight takes place at night at a low altitude at a speed of 50 kilometers per hour. The most massive span falls in the second half of April. Males arrive earlier than females. Woodcocks give preference to wetlands with soils that are rich in earthworms, with shrubs and trees, where you can safely hide from the eyes of predators.