Found on the largest islands of the Malay Archipelago – Java, Sumatra, as well as on the island of New Guinea. The Malay Archipelago, which is the largest cluster of islands on earth, includes about 10 thousand islands, with a total area of about 2 million square meters. km, which is equal to the entire territory of the United States of America. Many of them are lost in the ocean and not even marked on nautical charts, but others belong to the largest islands of our planet.
The islands of the Malay Archipelago are located in the tropical belt, with most of it located in the equatorial climate zone, and the northern and southern margins in the subequatorial (monsoon) climate of the northern and southern hemispheres. The air temperature is characterized by slight fluctuations throughout the year: from plus 23-26 at the foot of the mountains to plus 15-17 at their tops. The relief is predominantly mountainous, with heights of up to 4,101 meters. The islands are dominated by rainforest evergreen tropical forests with an exceptionally rich and diverse species composition of vegetation, a variety of endemic forms, a mass of lianas, epiphytes (plants are parasites). The rain forests of the lowlands, foothills and the lower parts of the mountain slopes above turn into mountain rain forests, also evergreen. They have especially many giant trees. Razamales with trunks in the form of huge columns carry their crowns to a 60-meter height. The same height and Javanese chestnut. Not much inferior to them in the value of ficuses, liquidations. These forests also abound with lianas and epiphytes. Above in the mountains, where the clouds almost always hang and everything is shrouded in mist around, the trunks and branches of the trees are dressed with moss. There are evergreen oaks, laurels, and thickets of tree ferns.
The archipelago located between Asia and Australia is of particular interest. Most Asian animal species inhabited the archipelago to the Great Sunda Islands inclusive, but some mysterious barrier prevented most of them from penetrating further. Similarly, the Australian species seemed to have stopped on the islands of Tasmania and New Guinea. Another interesting fact: these islands, lying on a half-way between Asia and Australia, despite this advantageous geographical position, have relatively poor fauna. Such an anomaly can be explained. only by acknowledging the existence of certain barriers.
Indeed, the study of the underwater relief of this area revealed that the surface of the ocean covers two shallow-water areas separated from each other by deep troughs and margins of the seas. One of them corresponds to the southern part of the South China Sea and the Java Sea, and the second to the Arafur Sea. Accordingly, one of them – Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan with Asia, and the other connects New Guinea with Australia.
The Malay Archipelago is a country of volcanoes. Almost all the islands are with uneven, rugged relief, and if in the continental parts of Asia the mountain slopes rise more or less gently, here the mountains rise almost vertically from the sea itself. Such is the world around us where the Indonesian woodcock lives. It is smaller than the northern one and tied to mountain rain forests that grow at an altitude of 1700 to 2500 meters above sea level. Despite the fact that the archipelago is located in the heart of the tropics and most of the islands inhabited by Indonesian, lie either directly at the equator, or not more than 10 degrees north or south of it, in areas located high above sea level, the shallow-water areas. In Java, Sumatra and New Guinea at an altitude of more than 1,800 meters, frost sometimes occurs at night.
The mountain forests are characterized by rarefaction of the forest canopy, undergrowth of ferns and shrubs with relatively good light, more rarely found climbing plants, epiphytes and mosses. The amount of precipitation in mountain tropical forests is greater than in low-lying areas, but thanks to the slopes the water flows rapidly, and outwardly the mountain forests seem drier. There is no suffocating moisture from the constant evaporation of standing water. Prerequisite for the presence of the Indonesian woodcock are the meadows and edges of the mountain rainforest.
Since the end of August and September, the Indonesian woodcock makes mating flights, which are accompanied by sounds resembling the song of the northern woodcock. Nesting falls in February-March-April. The nest is built from plant remains on moss cover or on the ground. In clutch, in contrast to the northern woodcock, not four eggs, but two yellowish with brown-rusty and gray-pink speckled eggs. Chicks appear since April.
The Indonesian woodcock, as well as the north, is evening and nightlife. During the daytime, he is kept under cover of tropical forest, but in the evening he flies to feed on open areas of forest, meadows and cultivated fields near villages. The basis of its food is earthworms, larvae of tropical insects, sometimes caterpillars, spiders and small grasshoppers. The Indonesian woodcock is sedentary, settling the islands of the archipelago; has a number of subspecies.